This inspection report sets out the findings of a monitoring inspection, the purpose of which was to inform a registration renewal decision. This monitoring inspection was announced and took place over 2 day(s). The inspection took place over the following dates and times From: To: 18 March 2015 09:00 18 March 2015 17:30 19 March 2015 09:10 19 March 2015 16:15
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a multisystem disorder with significantly shortened life expectancy. The major cause of mortality and morbidity is lung disease with increasing pulmonary exacerbations and decline in lung function predicting significantly poorer outcomes. The pathogenesis of lung disease in CF is characterised in part by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. This leads to accumulation of viscous mucus in the CF airway, providing an ideal environment for bacterial pathogens to grow and colonise, propagating airway inflammation in CF. The use of nebulised hypertonic saline (HTS) treatments has been shown to improve mucus clearance in CF and impact positively upon exacerbations, quality of life, and lung function. Several mechanisms of HTS likely improve outcome, resulting in clinically relevant enhancement in disease parameters related to increase in mucociliary clearance. There is increasing evidence to suggest that HTS is also beneficial through its anti-inflammatory properties and its ability to reduce bacterial activity and biofilm formation. This review will first describe the use of HTS in treatment of CF focusing on its efficacy and tolerability. The emphasis will then change to the potential benefits of aerosolized HTS for the attenuation of receptor mediated neutrophil functions, including down-regulation of oxidative burst activity, adhesion molecule expression, and the suppression of neutrophil degranulation of proteolytic enzymes.
Curriculum and pedagogy are central to many contemporary debates on fostering a successful student experience, particularly in a massified higher education sector. These themes are evident in discussions from policy level to the staffroom in many countries. Attention has been specifically directed at the transition point from ‘second level’ to ‘higher/third level’ education, resulting in the development of many initiatives and materials around the ‘first year experience’ (‘FYE’). Central principles have been identified as curricula that engage students in their programme, modules and learning. Indeed the term ‘student engagement’ has evolved as a focal point of these debates as the search continues for a magic wand to tackle what are perceived to be problems of student disengagement and preparedness. Although a newer phrase in the Irish lexicon, first year experience programmes have quickly emerged which typically attempt to develop varying blends of academic and generic skills such as information literacy, student engagement, resilience and confidence, and preparedness for the workplace among others. Such widening of the curriculum has many potential benefits, but in reality, institutional and individual barriers, resistance and a lack of measurability can often result in frustrations and disappointments. Building connections, in terms of curriculum, people and structures is at the heart of a successful FYE programme. This paper will draw on the example of the “Get Smart!” initiative, which is a bottom-up approach to integrative curriculum developed in the School of Hospitality Management and Tourism, Dublin Institute of Technology. The initiative sits laterally across modules and attempts to form an integrating mechanism. It also looks to extend the Orientation beyond the initial few days of a student’s commencement on their programme, using academic and quasi-academic elements. Over the six years of the initiative many challenges have emerged, including connecting the curriculum to the workplace, career preparation, securing staff and student buy-in, and the development of student resilience. Tellingly, the over-arching challenge of how the curriculum can be more than the ‘classroom’ remains largely unsolved. The paper further highlights the notion of “roles” adopted in the implementation of Get Smart! and whether these are typical of curriculum redevelopments. How can one person’s passion be institutionalised into a school or faculty-wide programme? How can ‘doubters’ become ‘do-ers’ and how can momentum be maintained as resources dwindle? Finally, the paper presents experiences of communicating the curriculum in the context of new learners. There is considerable awareness of the abilities and expectations of the tech-savvy ‘Gen. Yers’ and now ‘millennials’. The need to communicate differently should be driven more from the perspective that, if the curriculum is changing, shouldn’t the communication and conversation vehicles similarly be re-imagined? Get Smart! has used Facebook, Twitter, ezines and a bespoke app to communicate with students in language they understand. Difficulties and opportunities will be assessed, drawn from ongoing research carried out with students as part of the management of Get Smart!
Designers of on-body health sensing devices face a difficult choice. They must either minimise the power consumption of devices, which in reality means reducing the sensing capabilities, or build devices that require regular battery changes or recharging. Both options limit the effectiveness of devices. Here we investigate an alternative. This paper presents a method of designing safe, wireless, inductive power transfer into on-body sensor products. This approach can produce sensing devices that can be worn for longer durations without the need for human intervention, whilst also having greater sensing and data capture capabilities. The paper addresses significant challenges in achieving this aim, in particular: device safety, sufficient power transfer,and human factors regarding device geometry. We show how to develop a device that meets stringent international safety guidelines for electromagnetic energy on the body and describe a design space that allows designers to make trade-offs that balance power transfer with other constraints, e.g. size and bulk, that affect the wearability of devices. Finally we describe a rapid experimental method to investigate the optimal placement of on-body devices and the actual versus theoretical power transfer for on-body,inductively powered devices
Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of research interest in the psychosocial factors associated with competitive athletes’ propensity to use prohibited performance-enhancing drugs. This practice is commonly known as "doping" and typically refers to athletes’ proclivity to use "illegitimate performance enhancement substances and methods" . Although the problem of doping in sport may appear to be a relatively new phenomenon, it has a surprisingly long history. For example, prohibited substances such as caffeine and cocaine were used by cyclists in a bid to enhance competitive performance as far back as the 1890s. Unfortunately, studies on doping in elite athletes are afflicted by at least two unresolved issues. First, the links between doping attitudes and doping behavior have not received sufficient research attention to date. Second, the role of psychological theory in elucidating these links has not been addressed adequately. Therefore, the purpose of the present chapter is to address these two issues.
An understanding of generosity must be central to an understanding of our moral nature, yet there is no good philosophical account of generosity. This is exemplified in Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics, where interesting accounts of liberality (using your wealth well) and magnificence (spending large amounts of money well) are provided in Book IV, but none of generosity. Hutcheson and Hume were interested in benevolence, but benevolence is not the same thing as generosity either. For Hume, benevolence is ‘desire of the happiness of the person belov’d, and an aversion to his misery.’ (Treatise, 22.214.171.124) So, acting benevolently, for Hume, is acting from this sentiment for the sake of someone else’s wellbeing. Picking up litter that somebody else has dropped is not benevolent on this account, but I think it may count as generous behaviour. And conversely, I will argue later that benevolent actions that are presumptuous and intrusive are not generous.
Arguing first that the best way to understand what a continuant is is as something that primarily has its properties at a time rather than atemporally, the paper then defends the idea that there are occurrent continuants. These are things that were, are or will be happening – like someone reading or my writing this paper for instance. The prevailing philosophical view of process is as something that is referred to with mass nouns and not count nouns. This has mistakenly encouraged the view that the only way to think of process is as the stuff of events and has obscured the possibility of thinking of processes as continuants.
Random Field theory has emerged in recent years to model the statistical correlation of resistance in concrete structures and to determine its influence on the probability of structural failure. A major shortcoming in the work carried out to date is the spatial variability and corresponding correlation associated with applied traffic loads. In this paper the influence of spatial correlation of both traffic load and resistance is considered in the context of bridge safety assessment. The current study, explores, the nature of the problem by three theoretical examples. As a general trend, examples show that while traffic loads are weakly correlated, load effects are strongly correlated as the same heavy vehicle often causes extremes of load effect in different parts of the bridge which is due to the transverse sharing of load (measured here using a load sharing factor). It is found that the strength of correlation of load effect depends greatly on the load sharing factor which is treated in a simple way in many studies. In a more sophisticated beam-and-slab bridge example, load sharing factors are derived from a finite element analysis to assess transverse load sharing, and are shown to vary by girder number, girder segment and by load location. Despite the fact that load effect at points along the length of a bridge is strongly correlated, the combined influence of correlation in load and resistance on probability of failure is small.
This Article is a critique or parody of the normative basis of modern public international law. Dear Editor: It appears that the following confidential communication was sent by the Irish head of government, Éamon De Valera, to the heads of government of the major Allied Powers about five weeks prior to the end of hostilities in Europe in 1945. I have no doubt that this document will be of considerable interest to diplomats, historians, and the public. Several weeks after De Valera sent the letter below, he visited the German envoy to Ireland, Dr Hempel, to express condolences in the wake of Hitler’s death (by suicide). De Valera was widely excoriated for his conduct. But as the correspondence below shows, it was not so much that De Valera was wrong; rather, he just outpaced later, yet-to-emerge modern developments in public international law. Sincerely, Seth Barrett Tillman Lecturer, Department of Law National University of Ireland Maynooth
With the endothelium as its central unit, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex multicellular structure separating the central nervous system (CNS) from the systemic circulation. Disruption of the BBB has now been implicated in a multitude of acute and chronic CNS disorders indicating the potentially devastating effects of BBB breakdown on brain function. However, the healthy BBB is not an impermeable wall, but rather a communication 'centre', responding to and passing signals between the CNS and blood. New studies are identifying BBB-specific transport pathways that tightly regulate the entry and exit of molecules to and from the brain. They are revealing a highly plastic barrier in which dynamic changes in BBB components like paracellular tight junction complexes can contribute to BBB maintenance. Here, we provide a succinct overview of the current state-of-play in BBB research and summarize novel findings into BBB regulation in homeostatic regulation of the brain.